Technical Resources

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Engineered Solutions FormTroubleshooting GuideCoatings GuideSpeeds & FeedsClimb Milling

Engineered Solutions Form

DESCRIPTION OF TOOL SOUGHT:

DESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL TO BE MACHINED:

Ship Sample Part if Available
DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE / FIXTURES:


CONTACT US if You Require Assistance in Analyzing Your Application and Special Tool Needs

Troubleshooting Guide

Excessive Wear

Problem / Cause Solution
Speed is too fast Decrease spindle speed, try coolant.
Hard work material Use Coating (TiN, TiCN, TiALN, etc.).
Tool is rubbing Determine appropriate relief for application.
Incorrect primary relief Determine appropriate relief for application.
Recutting chips Change feed and speed, change chip size or clear chips add coolant or air pressure.
Material defect of workpiece Use consistent hardness material.
Improper rake or relief Resharpen cutter to correct geometry to suit cutting conditions.
Insufficient performance of end mill Use high-performance material end mill. Try to use coated end mill (TiN, TiCN, TiALN, etc.).
Unsuitable cutting fluid Select proper cutting fluid. Correct lubricating system.
Improper time of resharpening Provide timely resharpening.
Incorrect resharpening Improve surface roughness on resharpening. Prevent overheat of cutter grinding. Remove build-up edge and weld deposit.

Unacceptable Tool Life

Problem / Cause Solution
Excessive friction Regrind at earlier stage.
Hard work material Use Coating (TiN, TiCN, TiALN, etc.).
Material too hard Provide proper annealing. Reduce feed and use high- performance for end mill.
Incorrect feed Define proper feed.
Insufficient coolant Use proper cutting fluid.
Incorrect resharpening Resharpen cutter to correct geometry to suit cutting conditions.
Less number of resharpening Regrind relief angle smaller. Provide proper resharpening amount.
Improper time of resharpening Provide timely resharpening (earlier).

Chipped Cutting Edges

Problem / Cause Solution
Feed rate excessive Reduce feed rate.
Lack of rigidity (machine & holder) Use better machine or tool holder or change parameters.

Rough Surface Finish

Problem / Cause Solution
Excessive feed rate Reduce feed rate.
Cutting speed is too slow (not shearing) Increase RPM.
Excessive wear Regrind at earlier stage.
Recutting chips Change feed and speed, change chip size or clear chips add coolant or air pressure.
Chatter Increase rigidity of workpiece fixture.
Reduce cutting speed Consider conventional (up-cut) milling. Use Shortest possible length of tool, consider using special long reach holder.
Uneven hardness of workpiece Use even hardness material.
Insufficient rake and relief Resharpen cutter to correct geometry to suit cutting conditions.
Edge Build-up Remove build-up edge and cold welding. Check deterioration of cutting fluid.
Dull cutting edge Provide timely resharpening.
Excessive speed Reduce cutting speed.
Improper or lack of cutting fluid Change cutting fluid or lubricating system.

Lack of Dimensional Accuracy

Problem / Cause Solution
Cut is too heavy Decrease width and depth of cut.
Lack of rigidity (machine & holder) Repair machine or holder.
Rigidity is unacceptable (piecepart) Change machine or tool holder or change parameters.
Too few flutes Use multiflute end mills.

Chip Packing

Problem / Cause Solution
Cut is too heavy Decrease width and depth of cut.
Not enough chip clearance Use end mill with fewer flutes.
Not enough coolant Use higher coolant pressure and reposition nozzle to point of cut or use air pressure.

Tool Breakage

Problem / Cause Solution
Excessive feed Reduce feed rate.
Oversize chip Decrease width and depth-of-cut.
Overhang of tool Hold shanks deeper, use shorter end mill.

Workpiece Burrs

Problem / Cause Solution
Excessive wear Regrind at earlier stage.
Incorrect feed and speed rates Decrease width and depth-of-cut.

Squeal and Chattering

Problem / Cause Solution
Feed and speed too fast Correct feed and speed.
Lack of rigidity (machine & holder) Use better machine or tool holder or change parameters.
Piece part lacks rigidity Improve clamping rigidity.
Excessive cut Decrease width and depth of cut.
Overhang of tool is excessive Hold shank deeper, use shorter end mill.
Lack of relief Decrease relief angle, make margin; hone primary with stone.

Torn Finish

Problem / Cause Solution
Uneven wear on teeth Remove wear by regrinding.
Cold welding on teeth (galling) Remove cold welding. Change cutting fluid.
Chipped teeth Handle end mill carefully.

Uneven Finish

Problem / Cause Solution
Too few flutes Try multi flute end mill, 2 Flute, 3 Flute, 4 Flute.
Helix angle to high Use lower helix angle mill.

Breakage

Problem / Cause Solution
Lack of rigidity in set-up Check component or fixture for security and rigidity.
Dull cutting edge Provide resharpening.
Careless handling Handle end mill carefully
Recutting Chips Remove chips by air-jet cutting fluid.

Chipping or Cracking

Problem / Cause Solution
Chatter Increase rigidity of workpiece fixture.
Material defect or workpiece Use even hardness material. Remove abnormal parts such as scale, sandtumbling etc.
Feed too high Reduce feed speed.
Dull Cutting Edge Providing resharpening.
Deterioration of cutting fluid Provide new cutting fluid.

Coatings Guide

TiN (Titanium Nitride)

  • General purpose coating for machining iron based materials
  • Less expensive alternative to TiAlN and AlTiN
  • Thickness: 2-5 microns
  • Hardness HV .05: 2,300

TiCN (Titanium Carbon Nitride)

  • High performance coating where high speeds and feed rates are desired
  • Improved durability for interrupted cuts
  • Works well with aluminum, brass, and bronze applications
  • Thickness: 2-4 microns
  • Hardness HV .05: 3,000

TiAlN (Titanium Aluminum Nitride)

  • High performance coating for ferrous materials
  • Excellent heat resistance and hardness
  • Best results in DRY milling applications
  • Works well in hardened materials, titanium alloys, stainless steels and cast irons
  • Thickness: 2 – 5 microns
  • Hardness HV .05: 3,300

AlTiN (Aluminum Titanium Nitride)

  • High performance coating for ferrous materials
  • Excellent heat resistance and hardness
  • Best results in DRY milling applications
  • Works well in hardened materials, titanium alloys, stainless steels and cast irons
  • Thickness: 2 – 5 microns
  • Hardness HV .05: 3,300

AD (Amorphous Diamond)

  • Smooth, hard, flexible, thin film coating
  • Maintains sharper edge than CVD
  • Excellent for machining graphite, carbon fiber and non-ferrous materials where machining forms a grit rather than a chip
  • Thickness: .5 – 2 microns
  • Hardness HV .05: 5,000

CVD (Crystalline Diamond)

  • Grown directly on the cutting tool
  • Excellent for machining graphite, carbon fiber, green ceramics and non-ferrous materials where machining forms a grit rather than a chip
  • Up to 50x the tool life as AD
  • Thickness: 8 – 10 microns
  • Hardness HV .05: 10,000

PCD (Polycrystalline Diamond)

  • Manufactured as a wafer brazed to a carbide body
  • High abrasion resistance and hardness
  • Best for non-ferrous applications
  • Hardness HV .05: 10,000

HM (HARDMILL)

  • Proprietary coating blend designed specifically for extended life machining hardened materials
  • Hardness HV .05: 3,300

DLC (Diamond Like Carbon)

  • Thin carbon based amorphous coating, best for non-ferrous materials
  • Hardness HV .05: 2,800

Speeds & Feeds Info

Modern milling cutters capable of operating at higher feeds and speeds, and moving more cubic inches of metal per minute, require greater machine rigidity and more power.

Therefore it is important to determine that enough power is available to handle the desired depth and width of cut at the higher feeds and speeds.

T= Number of teeth in cutter
D= Cutter diameter in inches
RPM= Revolutions per minute
SFM= Surface feet per minute
F= Feed in inches per minute

f= Feet per tooth in inches
W= Width of cut
d= Depth of cut
HP= Motor horsepower
C= Machinability constant.

tech-chart-formulas

Machinability constant values for various materials are based on removing one cubic inch of metal per minute per horsepower with 60% power efficiency at the spindle nose and a 25% allowance for cutter dulling.

tech-chart-material-values

End Mill Speeds & Feeds

Speed: May be varied to suit conditions and type of operation in order to achieve best results.
Feed: Must consider material and depth of cut, tool diameter, number of flutes, and length. Tool material — HSS, Cobalt, and Carbide.

tech-chart-speeds-end-mill

Drill Speeds & Feeds

Speed: Factors effecting optimum Drill speeds depend on: Depth of hole, hardness of material, coolant, drill machine type, hole finish, and hole location.
Feed: Factors effecting feed rates are drill diameters, machineability of material, and depth of hole. Small drills, harder materials, and hole depths in excess of 3–4 times diameter require adjustment to suggested drill feed rates.

tech-chart-speeds-drill

Climb Milling Info

Advantages of Climb Milling:

    • Longer Tool Life: Since the chips produced are deposited behind the cutter, tool life can be substantially increased.
    • Ease of Fixturing: Climb milling exerts a downward clamping force on the workpiece and not an upward force as in conventional milling, which results in simplified fixturing.
    • Improved Surface Finish: Since the chips are not carried by the cutter, less likelihood of marring the machined surface.
    • Lower Power Requirements: A higher rake angle can be utilized, lowering power consumption.
    • Better Chip Evacuation: Easier and faster chip removal since chips are deposited behind the cutter.

tech-climb-milling

In conventional milling, the cutter revolves opposite to the direction of table feed. Therefore the width of the chip starts at zero and increases to a maximum at the end of the cut. This can lead to accelerated tool wear under some conditions. Conventional milling hot rolled steel, surface hardened and steels with a surface scale.

In climb milling, the cutter revolves in the same direction as the table feed. The tooth meets the work at the top of the cut, producing the thickest part of the chip first. In horizontal applications the resultant force created by climb milling can act as a clamping force, acting toward the machine table. It is important to make sure that the machine tool has no leadscrew backlash. Normally climb milling improves product surface finish and increases tool life.